Trust No One

I had a few different thoughts as I was reading “Trust me, I’m lying”. As a consumer, I was taken aback by the things that were said in this reading. First of all I started wondering who would think of doing these things, and why they would do it. It doesn’t make sense to me that people would want to start such controversy. Then I started questioning what I could actually believe on the internet. I know that people say you cant trust the internet, but the internet is such an important part of our lives; it would be nice if the information we were receiving was accurate. And since the internet is such an important part of our society, and is becoming increasingly more important, this issue of false advertsing (in the nicest terms) is only going to get worse. Or will it?

Holiday is brutally honest in this piece. He really exposes the industry for what it is, and it seems like he’s doing it with good intentions. He is telling us first hand what was happening, and how easy it was. For some reason, I trust him. Which is weird considering the fact that he just admitted to all this false advertising he has done. I guess it just seems that he has good intentions in his book, “trust me, I’m lying”

So, will this issue get worse? Or will people learn from it, and start to recognize the difference between real and fake?

I had heard of the invisible children before, but after reading “trust me, I’m lying”, I saw it from a whole new perspective. I don’t know if I can trust anything anymore. It opened my eyes in a way. We are so quick to donate money and do this and do that without knowing where the money or food or donations are going.


Rethinking Everything You Thought You Knew About Genre

Apparently genre isn’t as simple as pop, R&B, country, and oldies. It’s not even close to being that simple. I think it might be the most complex topic I’ve had to wrap my mind around in a while.

After reading Dean’s Genre Theory, I understand why the first thing she said about genre was that it is messy and complex. That’s an understatement. Just when I think it’s starting to make sense, it contradicts itself. This piece almost sounded like a huge riddle to me; “(I) can arrange something that exists and produce something else”. What am I?

I understand why she decided it would be easier to tell what genres are not before going into what they are, because it seems like they can be just about anything depending on the context and the situation. Before I get into this, I want to say that there was more of this piece that confused me than there was that I understood.

Genre is not classification

Say whaaaa? You mean to tell me that everything I have every thought to be true about genre is wrong?

Genre is not form

Dean says that genres are more than forms. She associates genre with “familiar places we go to create intelligible communicative action with each other and the guideposts we use to explore the unfamiliar”. To me, this sounds very similar to my inquiry, stereotypes. We stereotype to “explore the unfamiliar”, so does that make stereotypes or stereotyping a genre?

Genre is not fixed

When I think about genres being “tied to social purposes and contexts”, it makes sense that they are not fixed. If no two situations are exactly the same, no two genres can be exactly the same.

So if genre is not classification, not fixed, and not form; what is it?

Genre is social

The social aspect of genre supports my idea that stereotyping may be a genre. They “arise from social interactions”, and are “shaped by social situations”. They create social roles for participants, and they allow users to choose among options to effectively accomplish their purpose. My group’s contribution is looking at how stereotypes change with society. In this piece, Dean says that genres “grow out of past genres, and develop new ones”. This is basically the definition of stereotyping.

Genre is cultural

Sir Edwin Tylor provided us with the first good definition of culture:

That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. In my anthropology class, we have learned that culture is learned, shared, integrated, and dynamic. Since genre shares all of these characteristics, it only makes sense that genre is cultural.

Genre is historical

When I think about “historical” meaning that is has a history, there’s no doubt that genre fits in this category. It changes and evolves with society and the world around it.

Genre is situated

Genre is not situation, but it depends on situation. It “reflects a group’s beliefs and how it views the world”, so genre will vary from place to place. Dean compares it to “going to a place and taking on a character of that place.”

I had no idea what I was getting myself into when I started reading Genre Theory. Genre is so much more complicated and complex than I could have every imagined it to be. It’s everywhere and everything, but has no real definition. It will continue to evolve and change as long as people are evolving and changing, which will hopefully be for a long long time.


Sept. 29, 2015

  • “Create a Research Space”
    • establishing territory (basic information/ background)
      • Toward a discourse community (audience)
    • establishing a niche (problem that needs to be addressed)
      • The new information/ information that you’re adding
      • counter-claiming
        • recognizing a statement and coming up with a counter argument (yeah, but…)
    • Occupying a niche
      • outlining purpose

Stereotypers and Stereotypees

This is probably pushing it a bit to say that these are two different discourse communities because we are all a part of both, but I’m going to say that they are. Here’s why.

“A discourse community has a broadly agreed set of common public goals”

Both stereotypers and stereortypees share a common goal of categorizing for acceptance and understanding. Stereotypers categorize others to understand and accept groups or individuals that are different than themselves, while stereotypees categorize themselves to fit in.

“A discourse community has mechanisms of intercommunication among its members”

Both stereotypers and stereotypees use face-to-face communication and electronic.

“A discourse community uses its participatory mechanisms primarily to provide information and feedback.”

Feedback mechanisms for both communities would look pretty similar. They are most likely to use social media likes and retweets, hashtags, surveys, etc. to relay information and to get feedback from others within their discourse communities.

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“A discourse community utilizes and hence possesses one or more genres in the communicative furtherance of its aims”

Both stereotypers and stereotypees use texts, Facebook posts, memes, and may even hold meetings.

Stereotypers may post something like this,Screenshot-2014-03-11-at-12.41.21-AM

*note the use of the hash tag, and the retweets and favorites

whereas stereytypees may post something like this,


So, we see the stereotypers’ posts being more offensive, and the stereotypees’ posts being defensive.

“In addition to owning genres, a discourse community has acquired some specific lexis”

The lexis we see in the discourse communities of stereotyepers and the stereotyped tends to be pretty derogatory. Stereotypers specifically do a lot of name calling and use words in ways that they weren’t originally intended to mean. The first example that comes to mind for stereotypees would be LGBT. This would technically be a discourse community within the discourse community of stereryotypees, but Im using it as an example because not many people would know what LGBT stands for unless they were part of that community.

“A discourse community has a threshold level of members with a suitable degree of relevant content and discoursal expertise”

This is a mouth full, but basically it means that discourse communities have experts and novices. We see this in both discourse communities (stereotypers and stereotypers). Novices would be children because believe it or not, kids are exposed to stereotypes and learn at a very young age. The ones teaching them, directly or indirectly (parents/ teachers/ adults), are the experts. Whether they are teaching and learning to stereotype or just that stereotypes exist determines which discourse community they are a part of.


While discourse communities have a broadly agreed upon set of common goals, the individuals within the communities may have their own personal goals, which can differ. This is similar to the idea of a writer’s style.  There is a broadly agreed upon set of rules/ guidelines that make writing styles (narrative, biography, blog post, research paper, etc.), but each individual may have a different way of approaching one specific writing style.

Mini Reflection:

As a writer, I am growing and gaining a better understanding of what the student learning outcomes (SLO’s) really mean, and how to use them to my advantage. You really have to know and understand all of them to be able to improve your writing. I have used the SLO’s to read, understand, and respond to articles and prompts in class; and more recently, I’ve used them to understand and gain knowledge from articles and from my peer’s posts in order to move forward with my inquiry.

We’re all in this together

Emily H. is focusing on cultural stereotypes, and her research has the least amount of overlap out of everybody in our group. For Inquiry Log 1, she talks on the stereotype that Native Americans are alcoholics. In this post she focused on why they are viewed in that way. Below is a screenshot of my comments on this entry.

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For Inquiry Log 2, she switches the focus to stereotypes of black women. Specifically, angry black women. But, is there really some truth in this stereotype? Are we afraid to admit it if we believe that there is? Why/ Why not? In the disney movies, were the minority princesses (Jasmine and Tiana) display stereotypical characteristics? Why do we react so negatively toward black stereotypes when we see them in movies or in the media, but we tend to take white stereotypes or other racial stereotypes more lightly and even find them funny?

Reem’s topic is most similar to mine. I saw a lot of overlaps in our posts and also in Ramel’s post. Reem and I are both focusing on female gender stereotypes, whereas Ramel is focusing on men. Below are my comments on Ramel’s first Inquiry log.

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One of the questions I had when I was first reading and commenting on this post was about personal experience. In his second inquiry log, he talks about personal experience briefly, but doesn’t provide any specific example(s). One point that I found interesting and thought about looking more into is gender stereotyping and its effect on work. In this post, he mentions that women are quitting because of the unfairness and inequality, which is supporting and causing more stereotypes. I think this would be interesting to look more into, as long as I will be able to find new information.

Along with the questions I added in my comment on inquiry log 1, Ramel also might want to consider who is creating/supporting these stereotypes? Who is to blame? Men? Women? Is it really even that simple?

Emily S. chose to focus on how stereotyping affects an individual’s performance and why people aren’t doing more to stop stereotyping. My comments in Emily’s first inquiry log are posted below.

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Building off of that, Emily might want to focus more on thinking outside of the box and expanding her inquiry. It doesn’t seem like she has created many questions from her original questions.

Are women destined to be less than men?

Double Standards, Sexism shape Woods’ Story

I read and listened to this article at the same time. It’s a conversation  between Neal Conan and Roban Givhan about the women involved in the Tiger Woods scandal. Specifically, how the women are being described by their appearances and jobs. Its a bit sexist how these women are being targeted; and, while Tiger Woods is also being criticized, the media is giving him a chance to explain his actions, which is more than the women have gotten (at least not as publicly as Woods).

The writers frame is media and how media influences the opinions of society on celebrities and, in this case, a celebrity’s mistresses. The pictures of these women that show up in the media are, nine times out of ten, pictures taken as they are leaving a bar or club or some other night-life scene, where they are dressed for that sort of event. So, we only sees them in that way because that’s what the media wants.


We see everything unfolding in the media. We see the ratio; 1 Tiger Woods: 15+ women. To these women, though, that wasn’t the case. It was just them and Tiger at the moment. But then again, we’re assuming these women know who Tiger Woods is, and if they know who he is, they know he’s married. That alone does say something about these women, but it says more about Tiger Woods. So, why are  the women being judged so much more harshly then he is? Is it because Tiger Woods is famous and talented and everyone loves him? Or is it because he’s a man, and “boys will be boys”?


Your Body Language Shaped Who You Are

This was a great talk by Amy Cuddy about how your body language not only says a lot about you, but can affect how you view and feel about yourself.  She talks about how she viewed students in a classroom, and she noticed that there were some students who entered the room high and mighty, and there were others who entered more small and crunched as to not draw attention to themselves. She points out that most of the students crunched down and keeping to themselves were the females.



” Women are more likely to crunch down and physically make themselves smaller because they feel chronically less powerful than men”. Even when you google “man vs. woman body language”, most of what you see is similar to the image above: a woman being portrayed as smaller or less than a man. The writer’s frame, here, is how nonverbal communication affects how one views his/herself and is viewed by others.

Amy Cuddy had some very interesting questions:

  1. “Our nonverbals govern how others feel about us, but do our nonverbals govern how we feel about ourselves?”
  2. “Our minds change our bodies, but do our bodies change our minds?”

The two hormones mentioned by Amy are testosterone (dominance hormone), and cortisol (stress hormone). People in power need to have high dominance and be able to handle stressful situations. Amy suggests that we can “fake it until we make it”, meaning if you fake being powerful, you will become powerful because you will feel powerful. She tested this and found it to be true.

In relation to my inquiry, women are their own worst critics. They hold themselves to such a high standard and they feel that they have to prove themselves to men and to society as a whole. We (women) judge ourselves and other women so harshly because we constantly feel that we are in competition with each other because we live in a world, even today, where men are dominant.

Beliefs About Male and Female Competence Held by Kindergarteners and Second Graders

To get to the bottom of gender stereotyping; and to truly understand the who’s, whats, whens, wheres, and whys involved, it has to be traced back to before we formed opinions based on what we saw in the media and heard on the street. This study was done with 5-8 year olds. What it found was that “during the elementary school years, girls outperformed boys academically”, but “girls tend to rate boys higher and value their achievements more”. For some reason, even at such a young age, girls already feel like they are less than boys or that their achievements (even when they are the same as a boys) aren’t as impressive as a boy’s. The writer’s frame here is young children and their opinions of themselves and others.


A study mentioned in this piece suggests that “women may run the risk of being considered unfeminine if they portray the characteristics necessary for success. While individuals’ ideas of what “success” is may be different, the characteristics it takes to get there pretty much look the same.

Children are like sponges; the absorb. They see and hear things around them. They are exposed to adult stereotypes, which have proven to them that women are less than men. So, what if adults got rid of this stereotype? Would our children still feel this way?

Sept. 22, 2015

I was pretty confused and overwhelmed going into the second inquiry log. It seemed like a lot being thrown at me all at once. I usually have no time going off topic, but for some reason I had a hard time with number three in the prompt. Once I became focused on “this is what I need to find” and “this is what I need to get out of whatever it is that I find”, I had a hard time relating it to unrelated topics.

Throughout the process, and with this log in particular, I have been having trouble finding new information and information about my specific questions. Along the way, I changed one of my questions a bit because I decided that it was a little to specific.

From reading:

  1.  from the first section: extend ideas of others
    1. by reading, you start to form your own ideas and opinions
    2. you find things that you are able to contradict (yeah, but…)
  2. second section: writers frame
    1. writer’s frame = what they want you to see
      1. their perspective
    2. identify frame
      1. what do they emphasize?
    3. example: From FORBES article “there is another problem…”
      1. economics and business

Treat me the way you want to be treated.

The main focus of my inquiry group is how stereotypes speak to, inform, and revise our sociocultural context. I want to focus specifically on sexual double standards and relationships.

Double standards most definitely exist in society today. Whether we like to admit it or not, and whether we recognize it or not. I would be lying if I said that I didn’t go along with the gender stereotypes that exit today. That doesn’t necessarily mean that I think they’re okay. It’s just that it’s become normal. We see stereotypes in all types of ways, and sometimes we don’t even realize it because we see it so often that we don’t think anything of them. That is until we are stereotyped in a way that we feel is unfair and we stop and think ‘wait a second..that’s not true. Why would someone think that about me?”.

This has recently come to my attention in a personal way when I fell victim to this stereotyping. For some reason, my boyfriend gets really bothered any time I have contact with another guy. I’m not talking about physical contact; just contact. He would get so upset if a guy texted me or liked my instagram picture. At first, I was like ‘okay, I guess I can see where he’s coming from’, but then I changed my mind when it started getting worse. I started feeling like he was accusing me all the time of something that I wasn’t doing. What made it even worse is that I wasn’t doing anything that he wasn’t doing. He has friends that are girls. Girls text him, snapchat him, like his pictures on instagram, etc. The only difference was that I wasn’t making him feel like crap for it. When I would bring that up to him he would say “it’s different for guys”. HOW?!?!? This really just got to me because I cannot seem to understand how it’s okay for guys to do certain things but not okay for girls to do the same things, which is why I chose to look further into double standards. I want to find more about why they exist, who is to blame, and how they affect relationships.


What Motivates the Sexual Double Standard?

In trying to get to the bottom of sexual double standards, this study determined that woman are mainly responsible. The female control theory is the idea that girls refrain from sexual acts in order to protect their reputations and basically to raise the “value”, and they persuade other girls to do the same. But would girls need to raise the “value” if we considered each other as equals? The article suggests that girls consider other girls competition for potential mates, and are more likely to compete for a males attention.

If we could consider each other equals, we would wouldn’t have to put other girls down or make them feel bad about themselves or their choices. I think we would also be able to better recognize when a guy likes us for us.

The Sexual Double Standard and Adolescent Peer Acceptance

This article found that from a sample of students, those who didn’t push for abstinence, believed that premarital sex was okay for males but not okay for females. Im wondering, though, if women shouldn’t be having sex before they’re married, but men can, who are these men supposed to sleep with? Married women? Does this mean that these students believe that it’s okay for women to be unfaithful? If not, then how did they come to the conclusion that it’s okay for males but not females?

The study says that girls are called ‘sluts’ and ‘bitches’ if they initiate sexual actions, but boys are congratulated and encouraged. It seems that girls can’t win. Boys “perceive girls as sexual objects”, but shame them for engaging in sexual behaviors. It was even found that things considered to be acceptable behaviors for males, such as making sexual passes at other boys’ girlfriends’ or to their own, was not considered acceptable for girls.

Exploring Perceptions of Slut-Shaming on Facebook: Evidence for a Reverse Sexual Double Standard

This study shows that when males were called “sluts”, it was in a much more congratulatory manner than it was for females. It also shows that when females are labeled “sluts”, they are basically shunned, and people tend to distance themselves from said “slut”. They mention that it is possible that the participants may have felt that they had to give a ‘socially acceptable’ response to the questions. But  if these students feel like these double standards don’t exist so much on college campuses (which is where this study took place), then why do they think its more ‘socially acceptable’ to answer questions in favor of the double standard?

People always feel like they have to do or say the right thing, and sometimes that means saying things that you don’t believe to be true. What are we afraid of, though? Nobody likes to be judged,but ironically, in this situation, these students who were trying to avoid judgement, they were casting judgement on others.

Double standards: My Thoughts On This Never-ending Issue

In thi article, Labossiere says, “America is the place for freedom, liberty, and equality…unless we are talking women, sex, and relationships”. He realizes that women keep getting belittled and getting the “short end of the stick” when it comes to sexual double standards. He agrees that women contribute a lot to the double standards and gives the example or how they raise their daughters vs. how they raise their sons. But are mothers being sexist in how they teach their children, or are they teaching their daughters how to be a “lady”. What defines a “lady”? Is it avoiding promiscuity? Can a woman be sexual and still be considered a “lady”? Labossiere thinks that most men agree and wouldn’t want to change the double standard because they feel it gives them a sense of freedom.

Sexual double standards are “crippling relationships” because men don’t realize that women are actually very similar to them, and have similar experiences as them. They don’t realize because women are afraid to talk about it. You can’t be in a relationship without trust and honesty. Women should be able to be open and honest without being judged by their significant other.

Everyday Sexism

Laura Bates talks about sexism that we see on a daily basis maybe without even realizing that its sexist. We have be “programmed” to think things are normal or acceptable when they’re not. Bates mentions that when she spoke up about an incidence where she was toughed inappropriately on a bus, she was told to stop overreacting. Was she overreacting? She says that she was on a bus and that if she hadn’t been on the phone with her mother, she probably wouldn’t have said anything about it. Was she trying to get attention? If so, was it the right kind of attention?

People love to broadcast their business on social media these days. Good and bad. Obviously, these people are trying to get attention. They want people to know that they graduated college, or that their boyfriend broke up with them. The question is, what kind of attention are they drawing to themselves. If Bates was trying to reach out for help on the bus that day, that’s a totally different type of attention then if she was trying to show people that men want her.

Sept. 15, 2015

  • It’s about sitting down, thinking about your life, then writing
  • we’ve been taught not to use personal experiences
    • drawing on personal experiences is more than using “I”
      • “I think” is not necessary..obviously if you said it, you think it
      • “I have experiences___” is good
    • personal experience makes writing believable
  • It’s important to recognize what bothers you, personally bc it says a lot about you
  • There is more than two opinions about subjects
    • everyone has an opinion
    • we start going back and forth and it gets confusing
      • not compartmentalizing

“Should Everyone Go To College” article (Forbes)

  • “universal goal”?
  • I wouldn’t say that college is a good investment for everybody
    • people can get jobs and make decent money straight out of high school
    • people can go to college and can’t get a job after they graduate